Download Electrical Engineering Materials PDF Notes for Pokhara UniversityCourse Objectives:
To provide a basic understanding of the electric and magnetic properties of materials used in electrical and electronics engineering.
1. Theory of Metals (3 hrs)
Elementary quantum mechanical ideas, free electron theory, energy well model of metal, the density of states function, the Fermi-Dirac distribution function, thermionic emission, work function, the Fermi level at equilibrium, and contact potential.
2. Free Electron Theory of Conduction in Metals (4 hrs)
The thermal velocity of electrons at equilibrium, lattice scattering, mean free time between collisions, the drift velocity of electrons in an electric field, diffusion of electrons, diffusion coefficient, Einstein's relationship between mobility and diffusion coefficients, chemical and physical properties of joint conducting, materials such As Au, Ag, Cu, Al, Mn, N, etc.
3. Conduction in Liquids and Gases (2 hrs)
Ionic conduction in electrolytes, and electrical conduction in gases, discharges, and electric breakdown.
4. Dielectric Materials (4 hrs)
Macroscopic effects, polarization, dielectric constant, dielectric losses, frequency and temperature effects, dielectric breakdown, Ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity, properties of common dielectrics such as glass, porcelain, polyethene, PVC, nylon, bakelite, rubber, mica, transformer oil, etc.
5. Magnetic Materials (5 hrs)
Ferromagnetism, ferromagnetism, paramagnetism, domain structure, hysteresis loop, eddy current losses, soft magnetic materials, Fe-Si alloys, Ni-Fe alloys, Ferrites for high-frequency transformers, square loop materials for magnetic memory, relaxation oscillators, hard magnetic materials such as carbon steels alnico and barium ferrites.
6. Semi-conducting Materials (8 hrs)
Band structure of group iv materials, energy gap, the density of states function, Femi-Dirac distribution function, hole and electron densities in an intrinsic crystal, effective densities of states, intrinsic concentration, Femi level of energy at equilibrium, group iii and group iv impurities, acceptors and donors, p-and n-type materials, energy band diagrams for uniformly-doped and graded p-and n-type materials, generation PN, recombination of electrons and holes, the concept of a lifetime, mobility and diffusion coefficients for electrons and holes in semiconductors, transport and continuity equations for electrons and holes, the idea of diffusion length, energy band diagram for a p-n junction, contact potentials, metal-semiconductor contacts.
7. Semiconductor Materials Procession (4hrs)
Crystal growing, doping by solid-state diffusion, ion implantation, oxidation Photolithography, the planar process, metallization, contacts
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