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# Network Theory PDF Notes for Pokhara University

Course Objectives:

1. To provide the basis for the formula and solution of network equations.
2. To understand the behaviour of the network.
3. To develop one–port and two-port networks with given network functions

Course Contents:

1. Review of Network Analysis (2hrs)
Mesh and Nodal-pair

2. Circuit Differential Equations (6 hrs)
(formulations and solutions) The differential operator, Operational impedance, Formulation of circuit differential equations, Complete response (transient and steady-state) of first-order differential equations with or without initial conditions, Use of software in solving network different equations

3. Circuit Dynamics (6 hrs)
First order RL and RC circuits, Complete response of RL and RC circuit to sinusoidal input, RLC circuit, Step response of RLC circui9t, Response of RLC circuit to sinusoidal inputs, Resonance, Damping factors and Q-factor.

4. Review of Laplace Transform (6 hrs)
Definition and properties, Laplace transform of common forcing functions, Initial and final value theorem, Inverse Laplace transform, Partial fraction expansion, Solutions of first order and second order system, RL and RC circuit, RLC circuit, Transient and steady-state responses of the network to unit step, unit impulse, ramp and sinusoidal forcing functions.

5. Transfer Functions (3 hrs)
Transfer functions of Network system, Poles and Zeros, Time- domain behaviour from pole-zero locations, Stability and Routh’s Criteria, Network stability.

6. Fourier Series and Transform (3 hrs)
Evaluation of Fourier coefficients for periodic non-sinusoidal waveforms, Fourier Transform, Application of Fourier transforms for non-periodic waveforms. Theory Practical Total Sessional 30 20 50 Final 50 - 50 Total 80 20 100

7. Frequency Response of Network (4 hrs)
Magnitude and phase responses, Bode plots and their applications, Half-power point, bandwidth, roll-off and skirt, Effects of a quality factor on frequency response, the concept of ideal and non-ideal LP, HP, BP and BS filters.

8. One-port passive network (8 hrs)
Properties of the one-port passive network, Driving point functions, Positive Real Function, Loss-less network synthesis of LC one-port network, Properties of RL and RC network, Synthesis of RL and RC network, Properties and synthesis of RLC one–port network.

9. Two-Port Passive Network (7 hrs)
Properties of the two-port network, Reciprocity and symmetry, Short circuit and open circuit parameters transmission parameters, Hybrid parameter, Relation and transformations between sets of parameters, Synthesis of two-port LC and RC ladder network based on zero shifting and partial pole removal, Equivalent T and π section representation, Properties of the resistively terminated loss-less ladder.